By Soroj Mullick, SDB
Soroj MULLICK, SDB, PhD., a Salesian Priest, is the present Director of the Catechetical Department in Kolkata. He has taught in schools and in college seminaries and worked in the parishes and in youth ministry in India and abroad as educator, formator, retreat preacher, editor. He has published articles and research papers in Christian journals and magazines.
According to the Church’s present understanding, a priest is not a pujari (purohit, brahmin thakur), nor a social worker with a religious tag; instead he is a servant-leader of the community, whose members he teaches, guides, administers the sacraments to, and reaches out to bring healing and unity where there is despair and division. He does this through the proclamation of the Word, public worship and close relatedness with the people in service, witness and God-centeredness.1 The details of this will differ from region to region. For a priest to become a servant leader as understood above is, then, a challenge mainly of inculturation and not of syncretism.
First of all we ask the question: what kind of priest (ordained minister) does the Church in India require? Or rather, what kind of priest does God require for India? Precisely, it is in finding the kind of priest India requires that we find out what God requires. God’s will for priests is discerned in the process of discovering what the Church needs for its identity, integrity, mission, and for its intelligibility in the Indian context. By starting with the Church’s grassroot experience in Indian soil, we understand better the priestly ministry. But this ministry is only a device to make the Church more effective.2
Priesthood is a gift from God. The current comment on the priest is based on what is provided for the Church and not what is useful for us. Priesthood is not meant to make the Church run better in India. Neither is it about the absolute certainty of priesthood explicitly established by Christ as valid for all time against all deadlocked debates for ages. The Church as God’s people spread all over the world has something in common: Christian faith. This faith is shared and communicated to all people of goodwill. So, the Church in India becomes the space in which people become what God made them to be. The priest’s function is not to organize the Church as a sub-society within the Indian society but to enable all people to inhabit this God’s abode. The priest makes it a people’s place where all can see clearly the face of God, all creation and ourselves. If the Church is Christ’s mysterious place, it is reality based, here and now in India, realized by Christ-like action. In the turbulence and violence of the India today, the gift of priesthood makes peace between humanity and God.
In an increasingly globalized society, the effort to obtain common good has to assume the dimensions of the whole human family, assuring better humanity. In the face of social inequalities and structural injustices in India, the priest’s challenge is an immediate coordinated intervention to end this malaise.
Though the priest does not have technical solutions to all problems yet he is expected to be an expert in humanity. He offers in service the teaching of the sacred Scripture on truth, love and justice (e.g., Caritas in Veritate, 2009). Therefore, a new formation plan is needed that will reshape priests on the fundamental ethics of responsibility before God and before all people. He has to dedicate himself to the global horizon of the socio-anthropological question.
The shortage of priests in India is now being felt, especially in some dioceses and religious congregations. Some priests have to look after a number of sub-stations and institutes. It is not always possible to have Sunday Mass in every church.
The priest himself is a challenge to the ‘absolutism of technology,’ the fruit of a materialistic and mechanistic understanding of human life that reduces love without truth to an empty body with negative effects on integral human development. The priest then looks to the future with hope and reminds Christians that the message of Christ is the first and principal factor of development.
Today’s visual and electronic media thrive on brevity, speed, change, urgency, variety and feelings. The priest is a counter-challenge to this as a thinking person who needs silence and the methodical skills of logic. Therefore, one needs to have the required intellectual discipline.
The priest as part of the rest of the Christians has to swim against the tide. Seeing religion as private, people turn more to the counselor, social worker or psychiatrist than to the priest. With an attitude to life based on materialism and self-interest, and a decline in personal and social moral values, any kind of life-long commitment poses a special challenge to priestly vocation.
With the challenges facing the rapidly growing economy of India and the impact of globalization on Indian culture, the priest is called to serve for full human development. He has to face all present challenges and problems with the people ― the financial crisis, economic inequality, poverty, corruption, workers’ rights, unbalanced development, war, violence ― all of which touch India. Besides his religious function, a priest has to work for the social welfare of the aam admi ― the common men and women. For multicultural India, the priest needs to initiate inter-cultural and interreligious dialogue where every each one’s faith and culture is respected, based on the knowledge of the specific identity of the faith communities. Therefore, a priest’s socio-religious and cultural identity would consist in continuous dialogue with life around him.
The priest-bishop, the priest-pope, the priest-minister and the lay Christian’s participation in the priesthood of Christ proves the equal share of all in God’s good will. The kenosis of Jesus (crucified death) affirms that the hierarchy and domination are not legal tender in the kingdom of God. All are privileged people of God (cf. Lk 6:20). This equal and collaborative approach ushers in a new value system in God’s kingdom. It helps better to realize a fuller life. All are called to this common goal. The more you share, the more abundant life becomes (cf. Jn 6:1-15).
The priest’s task of establishing the kingdom through servant leadership is a tough collaborative job. People of good will must be convinced that it is possible through some internal power and shared resources. The priest does not appropriate all power to himself. Instead, he wants all people of all faith to seek and carry out God’s will by themselves. The priest leads them, shows the way, guides and bears witness with his own life.
Each one is given a servant role in the realization of this kingdom. This service, some as priests, others as teachers, leaders or in any other role, has to continue steadfastly, "until we become the perfect human person, fully mature with the fullness of Christ himself" (Eph 4: 13). All have to grow in their self-esteem, develop their own personal authority and become self-directed. In this context, the gospel-based servanthood of all priests becomes signs of a new world order. Jesus’ incarnation includes his kenosis and is completed in resurrection and ascension ― the full cycle of servanthood. Priests do not proclaim themselves; they proclaim Jesus Christ (cf. 2 Cor 4:5). In servant leadership the priest does in his life the same self-emptying of the incarnation, passion and death.3 This servant leadership is the realization of the kingdom of God for all.
Authority, administration, management and governance are related to leadership. Christian leadership has to be in accordance with the mind of Christ. In the course of history, despite the type of leadership Jesus shows in the Gospels, the hierarchical priestly class picked up leadership styles from the Roman administrative patterns that have influenced the Church’s style of functioning. Consequently the Christian administration and Christian life mostly went on parallels.
Secular leadership and management models can be learned systematically and practiced efficiently through organizational vision, goals and objectives. Anyone can qualify to lead after mastering certain processes. But the Christocentric leadership4 goes against the secular model which is top-down. The gospel-based servant leadership emphasizes on the character of the leader, and his or her working relationships (cf. Mt 20:20-28).5Servant leadership is possible only with deep faith and hope for God’s kingdom on earth.6 Though the present servant leadership of the priest follows certain human sciences, it is fundamentally inspired by the gospel values. Ultimately, this alone ensures that the priest’s style of leadership will promote all people of good will. Yet, the society is not set up in an egalitarian manner. Certain groups dominate others. The social structures favor some at the cost of ignoring others. Partnership and equality, however, are reflected in the servant leadership style. Many management gurus have evolved effective management styles from the gospel pattern.7
Christ-Centered Servant Leader
The teaching of Jesus, "I came to serve, and not to be served" (Mt 20:28), is challenging. Jesus taught with his example of washing the feet of the disciples and invited them to do likewise. It is ultimately in his total surrender to Christ that the priest begins to understand his role as servant leader. According to some sociologists a role is understood as the function one fulfils in society in relation to one’s mission. Jesus’ understanding of being a servant refers to role and not to a positional status: "the greatest among you must become like the youngest, and the leader like one who serves" (Lk 22:25-26). Here, the focus shifts from power to service in a spirit of equality, reciprocity and communion. Today’s priests need to critically challenge the patriarchal praxis of the Church’s social teaching on justice and common good following the service model that is meant for all leaders in the Church. They need to carry on the revolution of Jesus and challenge the culture of the dominant society.
The present principles of leadership rely heavily on ancient wisdom. The six main characteristics propagated by modern management and leadership gurus, namely, planning, organizing, staffing, leading, monitoring and innovating, characterize the leadership style of Jesus as well, yet they are unique. What marks out the difference with Jesus is his self-emptying, which is seen as servant leadership with an entirely different set of values (cf. Lk 14:13-14). The archetype of the leader as servant is part of ancient literature. Chanakya’sArthashastra has the injunction: "The king shall consider as good not what pleases himself, but what pleases his subjects." Jesus goes a step further by teaching, "I am among you as one who serves" (Lk 22:27). After washing his disciples’ feet Jesus exhorts: "So if I, your Lord and teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another’s feet" (Jn 13:14-15).
Besides learning from the ancient culture and from Jesus’ teaching, secular learning is not a serious danger for the priest’s culture. These cultural pursuits are assets to the priest’s spiritual end. It is true, priests cannot serve two masters at once. Yet the innate importance of the temporal values cannot be ignored by a priest who wants to serve the society. "The more the Church’s mission is centered upon man … the more it must be confirmed and actualized theocentrically, that is to say, be directed in Jesus Christ to the Father."8 After having long years of formation, "(t)he priest must be graced by no less knowledge and culture than is usual among well-bred and well-educated people of his day."9 A priest has to get out of his confessional chair, the hidden interior of the Church, face vulnerability and focus on the priestly mission of forming the complete person.10
Collaborative Shared Leadership
Leadership, as a service, is all about the role of self-emptying. Any priestly function related to status in a Christian organizational set up will be a counter-witness. As India is developing itself economically through capitalistic means, the ingrained feudal values can create enormous problems for priests to manage themselves in role. Deep-rooted feudal values strongly support hierarchy. The apex role holders are considered unquestionable. The hierarchical priestly class that carries out the decisions almost acts arbitrarily. Its structures11 and the importance attributed to status create conditions for priests to mismanage their ‘servant’ role. One finds it difficult to break out of dependency. While managing the role effectively, the priest and all people of goodwill need to collaborate in service-oriented ministry.
The globalized market economy that enhances individualism and competition challenges each priest to help the poor against the onslaught of such economy. The priest is challenged to love all and share resources equitably with all Indians. Evidently only the ‘professional’ priests who are ready to pay the price, through non-attachment to people and possessions, can take up their cross and follow Christ (cf. Lk 14:25-33).
If priests take the matter seriously, if poverty is important, then their leadership will be geared towards the perspective of being poor and with the poor. Priestly life has declined today because of social isolation. The farther the priest gets from the poor, the more isolated he becomes, the less effective his life. Their ‘spiritual life’ makes mockery of themselves.12 The priestly poverty today is not the result of material scarcity, but of a set of priorities one imposes upon the rest of the world – equality, truth, justice and peace.
Equal love is the greatest challenge to a dominator model of society.13 Similarly, patriarchal domination in the Church is the greatest challenge for the single-gendered priests to overcome. The call to love all is the greatest witness to servant leadership (cf. Jn 15:14-15). Priests who preach universal love both in words and actions would reject the subservient position that the Indian culture assigns to women. A priest proclaims the socio-spiritual equality of all.14 "There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Christ Jesus" (Gal 3:28).
The challenge of servant leadership is to strengthen the prophetic dimension of Christian ministry. The ills of traditional praxis, control and domination will give way to participation and partnership. The priestly mission and tasks will be seen as fulfilling God’s will. The priest’s leadership will be exercised in seeking and facilitating God’s will. All would participate freely and willingly in reciprocity, fulfilling their roles with autonomy and collaboration, with personal authority and respect.
Priestly profession sometimes serves as an excuse for privileges and as an escape from responsibility. As the people see priests as special, the priests in turn develop "a holier than thou attitude." They tend to consider themselves higher than the majority laity against what Jesus says: "Whoever wishes to be great among you must be your servant" (Mt 20: 26b).
Administration, in which most of the priests are involved, is closely linked to leadership in their style. A gospel-based administration is in accordance with gospel style of leadership in the Church and in the society at large. The priest-administrator mirrors this style of leadership in making decisions, in shared authority, and in distributive tasks and roles.
The absence of poverty and community life is the bane of secular priesthood. The identity crisis of male religious priests in the Church today is projected on the ‘lay’ religious.15 Added to these, the hierarchical nature of the Church encourages the dominating clericalism. Therefore, the need to transform priests into servant leader is paramount in order to influence people positively, motivated by service and dedication to a cause.16 Servant leadership is not an option. It is a mandate.
Spirituality in general is defined as something that "makes one transcend the barriers of worldliness, caste, creed and nationality, and realize one’s connection with the Ultimate reality."17 If so, the servant leader priestly spirituality is characterised by his self-emptying, free of all attachments or prejudice, thus connecting himself with all people and with the triune God.
Priest as Servant Leader
The priest as servant leader is called into a community with the role of apostle and the task of witness (cf. Acts 1:21-22; 4:13). The priest then is given the responsibility of connecting communities with the fact of Jesus. He is a witness of his community and makes Christ contemporary with all God’s people. The priest publicly has received through Christ’s body (Church) the power of the word, witness and worship. Therefore, the fundamental service is that of announcing in word and action what and where the community is. The priest is ‘preoccupied’ with the business of Christ’s loving action for human beings, making peace through the self-giving of the Word. The Eucharist then is the central identifying act of the Church through the ministry of the priest.
The priest needs to have the skill and willingness of a faithful servant. He has to be free to be a seeker, an interpreter and a unifier. His prophetic role is that of a watchman who tells the Church to be free in order to see what and where it is. This can be a weighty and intensely painful responsibility taken up for the sake of the people of India.
In the torrent of India’s new trends which influence the Church and affect its mission, the priest cannot be deluged with one-dimensional ‘duties’; instead he has to be multi-focused with global perspective. He has to observe clearly the behaviors and habits that erode the integrity of God’s people. Being beyond cliché, the priest himself challenges the people’s stories to see the truth.
The effective and faithful priest is a witness to offering all people as a gift to God. Therefore, he needs to cultivate the knowledge of cultures in India, on how the old and modern myths work here, how emotions work in the Indian psyche. The priest has to speak in the people’s languages in the multi-religious missionary context; he needs to show Christians and persons of other religions the world they live in, with truthfulness and discernment. This is an urgent practical responsibility beyond all duties and tasks. Therefore, keeping abreast of the news, soap operas, and casual conversation is essential. If not, a Christian discourse would be unreal with no association with people and place.
In our Indian context, the priest does not only interpret the Gospel to and for the Church or for the world, but also helps all people of goodwill make sense to and of each other. Communities do not just happen in the midst of diversities in India. They need nurture. The unity of the Church or the unity of the nation does not consist in few convictions in common but the unity of a differentiated organism where diversities are at play. The priests have to see and show how diversity works together through active coordination. He has to express in action why some styles of mission and services benefit each other and why others do not. Interpretation combines discipline and warning as well as harmony. In short, a servant priest helps the believers to see Christ in one another. He is the human instrument by which God’s generosity is laid bare to all. It involves showing people the suffering Christ in social living. As the suffering servant, sometimes the priest has to speak as a parent to the prodigal son’s elder brother who sees only humiliation and loss.
The priest acts. The Church, as a variegated body, needs a kind of unifier into one Christ in the diverse roles and functions. The priest's leadership in public worship and sacramental life is one of ‘connector’ of communities. He connects visions and ideas. He builds bridges between the gospel and human concerns. His task is one of cooperation through personal investment. He is the point of reference where diverse interests and passions converge.
Within the diverse cultures, corruption, contempt and cynicism, the role of the priest in India is hard to execute. To tell unwelcome truths, to be faithful, to be consistent and patient, is not easy in this terror-stricken, anti-social and corrupt society. This calls for formation of personal discipline with persistence and healthy skeptical mind, and familiarity with difficult and tragic human experience ― the face of humanity.
The priest makes visible what the Church is. Therefore, he always refers himself to the action that makes and keeps this visibility. Thus, through theological studies he knows the depth and dimension of what this action is all about. This helps to see the Church not just as a human institution based on skill, agreement and goodwill. The priest learns to detach himself from dependence on human achievement. Through his faithful and patient commitment in prayer and in work, with acceptance of human diversity, the priest keeps seeking God in the human face, even when God is hidden.
The whole process of priestly ministry makes one see this present world joyfully and consistently in the light of God's active presence. This vision of God’s being and doing makes the priest less defensive and more vulnerable. God does not need any protection, neither in the Church nor outside. The priest knows the universe is God’s. He does not see revealed truth as a possession to be guarded, but as a place to inhabit. A priest cannot proclaim Christ effectively if he is too anxious and busy guarding Christ’s body (the Church).
The priest’s task is essentially to proclaim the Word in the world. He tells the people who they are in God’s presence, what it is to be involved in the priestly act of Jesus. He does so through the daily risky interactions with human beings reconciling them with God.
All these will certainly involve challenges that currently stand before the Church in India. But it will make sense in the new way of being the Church. This requires renewal in the Church in general and priesthood in particular which takes us beyond the static identity of Church that we historically know of and live. The emerging challenges for the priests in India centers around the rationale for ordained ministry. If we do not recognize these emerging challenges in the Church embodied in the ministerial priesthood, we could be in serious danger of sympathizing when it all begins to tumble.
The human and divine priesthood, with diverse experiences and with the sense of awe in the concrete world, strives to remain a steward of time, refuses to be pushed into functional patterns and trains himself to priestly skills. The priest thus holds together the reality of this world with the mystery of God’s trinitarian life: the Word becoming flesh, the fidelity of the Spirit in us, and sanctification of what we offer to God. Today the priest is called to reflect the priesthood of Christ, to serve the priesthood of the people of God, and to dispense God’s grace so that the Church afresh is set free to speak for God in Christ.18
Involved Servant Leader
A priest is a servant leader in the local community. He gets involved in service to the community. It is here that a priest evangelizes the self and the people. He seeks God in others whom he serves faithfully.19 He finds fulfillment and happiness through such need-based service to the community. His life in the spirit is marked by this fundamental attitude of service to the people of God (Pastores Dabo Vobis, 21). This involvement is a caring one. He listens to the laity in fraternal spirit, and recognizes their experiences and competence in reading together the signs of the time (Presbyterorum Ordinis, 9). He gives his time and energy to his people ― to listen, console, encourage and celebrate. He is available to them. This way his activity becomes ‘priestly’ through genuine commitment to the persons in the community.20 This commitment calls for competence pertaining to the service of God’s people: in compassion, sensitivity, empathy, respect, human rights, social justice, etc, through on-going formation in knowledge and skills in these areas.21
He leads himself and the community. He first seeks God in himself and in others particularly in their needs.22The servant leader cannot be isolated from his community where he belongs. He shares their insecurities. He is a brother among brothers and sisters commissioned together to build the Body of Christ (cf. PO, 9). His responsible service for others is the expression of his intimacy with God.23 Therefore, only "through his service of the people committed to his care and all the people of God, he is able the better to pursue the perfection of Christ, whose place he takes" (PO, 12). Thus, he becomes a priest in the full sense of the term than someone doing ‘priestly’ things.
Servant Leader as Creative Communicator
Priests are called to communicate, lead, inspire and care for God’s people. Communication and media affect his people more than before. Therefore, a priest participates and empowers through his own communication ― listens, shares, collaborates, delegates and decentralizes. He needs the power to convince and win others. He needs to be available, approachable, sociable and loveable. A servant priest in the parish needs to learn to communicate effectively. While taking into account the reality of human beings, their social and cultural nature, the servant priest has to communicate life and love, freedom, peace, justice, harmony and reconciliation in our multi-cultural India. Witnessing, for a priest committed to service, is the most important communication. His verbal and non-verbal communication would help people relate to each other and to God.24
As a visionary leader whose communication is a service, the priest animates, motivates, encourages and unites in an atmosphere of freedom and responsibility. As most priests in India have leadership roles, he needs to be an involving and interesting person ― sincere, simple and knowledgeable. A dynamic servant priest would communicate interestingly, narrating through verbal and virtual images, and stories. His interpretation is natural and connected to the context. Therefore, the creative communicator in the servant leader has to be well equipped with communication skills, be independent, nonconformist and unconventional with wide interests and openness to the new.25 He is a vulnerable servant leader who can communicate boldly by taking up risks involved in certain exposures.
In the context of social communication, branding faith by the faithfulness of the priest in a Church context may seem inappropriate. Priests as servant-communicator are not marketing the Church but Christ through their life. It is about how priests perceive the Church organization and its message in this media savvy world that is moving from the mass to more personalization. Therefore, they cannot ‘re-brand’ the Christian faith; instead go about expressing the faith in a media-dominated culture where the ‘audience’ is in charge and the challenge is to make them hear and respond.
In the footsteps of the man from Galilee, while making the Gospel relevant, the priests in India face many challenges from its social context while fulfilling the mission of the Church as his primary task. This is the mission of every Christian priest: development of persons and transformation of society through the mindset of Christ, the servant leader. This he does through the professional service availing himself of contribution from human sciences for a better service and leadership. He needs to know the fundamentals of modern management praxis, the key elements of professional service that is prophetic as well. Through a better understanding of authority he communicates across all boundaries, reaching to all people of goodwill. Therefore, his is a selfless service without counting the cost. He practices equality with all other fellow priests, while seeking and facilitating God’s will. Thus, he builds in communion a community of brother priests and establishes God’s kingdom, and not his.
This leadership is then a spirituality that is proper to priesthood. His is a servant leadership in an organizational set up either in a diocese or in a religious community. The priest’s ‘servant’ profile posits him to be alert, available, caring, collaborative, committed, efficient, balanced, human, mission-oriented, professional, responsible, and sensitive. He is service-minded, simple and cunning, a steward, transparent and welcoming.
The following of servant leadership is a journey. It is a process of transforming oneself26 which in turn enables the priest to transform others. It is in short, a personal, one-to-one and team leadership. The success of servant leadership depends on having a clear picture of the situation: its mission (primary task); how it is carried out (secondary tasks); who carries out the function (role); his relationship with others; his exercise of authority and style of communication. Servant leadership ensures that each one is unique. The priest is there to serve, not to be served. There exists reciprocal trust and sense of belonging through humble service with responsibility, efficiency and self-esteem.
Those seeking meaning and purpose in their lives have deep spiritual hunger. As a community person, the priest has a vital role to play in our society meeting this hunger. He has to be a community icon of God’s care and love, a living Gospel for all. Each priest will have to work in a true partnership with the ministers of other Christian communities. A real commitment to a deeply catholic ecumenical spirit is essential for any priestly service. His shepherd role includes leading his flock to collaborate with other Christians to bring the Good News to all. The multi-cultural and multi-faith India presents its own challenges to the priest. For him it is one of the great riches of our society. Utilizing its full potential the priest has to reflect Jesus’ own openness and respect to all. With his servant leadership the Catholic community becomes a leaven of reconciliation. He becomes a servant of harmony, an enhancer of multi-religious spiritual journey in a society so often torn apart by differences of race, culture and traditions.
The Church and its priests need to be open to renewal by the Spirit of God, reading the signs of the times and listening to the Word of God speaking to us in today’s language. Whatever be the changes in society, the renewed insights of the Church, or the problems faced by priests themselves, a priest always is the ambassador of God. Priesthood is an adventure and a greater challenge than ever before!
1. Cf. Joe Mannath, "Who Is a Priest?" Contemporary Religious Update -11, The New Leader, November 1-15, 1995, pp. 13-15.
2. Cf. Michael Ramsey, The Christian Priest Today (London: SPCK, 1987), 10; Archbishop of Canterbury, "The Christian Priest Today," Lecture on the Occasion of the 150th Anniversary of Ripon College, Cuddesdon, Friday 28 May 2004, at http:// www. archbishop of Canterbury .org/1185, 13.7.09
3. Cf. Salesian Provincial Economers of South Asia, "An Introduction to Servant Leadership, Professional and Prophetic, A Manual on Gospel Based Leadership-Administration Today," 19 November, 2007, pp. 31-33.
4. Cf. J. David Lundy, Servant Leadership for Slow Learners (Secunderabad, India: OM Books, 2003), viii.
5. The concept of servanthood is frequently found in the New Testament. The word diakonos (deacon) refers to a ministry in the church. It denotes a wider sense of service, whether within the Church as servants of Christ, or to humankind. This servant leadership is conceived of as an exalted position in the Gospel. The inverted pyramid of power paradigm is exercised by servant leaders with a humble attitude (cf. 2 Cor 4: 5, 7-12).
6. See also Mark 10, 43-45 or Luke 22, 25-26.
7. Laurie Beth Jones has published the books, "Jesus, CEO – Using Ancient Wisdom for Visionary Leadership" a runaway success; "Jesus in Blue Jeans, A Practical Guide to Everyday Spirituality" and "Teach Your Team to Fish, Using Ancient Wisdom for Teamwork." Ken Blanchard and Phil Hodges, both leading management professionals in America, have co-authored The Servant Leader and Lead like Jesus. These authors have started movements such as Lead like Jesus Ministries.
8. John Paul II, Dives in Misericordia (Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1980), # I, 2.
9. Pius X, Ad Catholici Sacerdotii (London: Catholic Truth Society, 1952), 35.
10. Cf. James Dorril, "The Priest’s Culture," The Priest (December (1993): 37-39.
11. The use of the word ‘hierarchy’ that was originally meant as a way of understanding holistic development has unfortunately degenerated into a way of defining inequality and getting away with it. If our administrative styles are to promote the values of Christ, then we need to think beyond ranking or hierarchy.
12. Cf. Joan Chittister, The Fire in These Ashes, A Spirituality of Contemporary Religious Life (Kansas City: Sheed and Ward, 1996), 110.
13. Some hold that historically there have been societies that were neither patriarchal nor matriarchal. They call these gylanic societies where there is partnership and no domination; that links both halves of humanity to solve or set free. Cf. Riane Eisler, The Chalice and the Blade (New York: Harper SanFrancisco, 1988), 105.
14. Cf. Riane Eisler, The Chalice and the Blade (New York: Harper SanFrancisco, 1998), 120.
15. Pascual Chavez, "Conference to the Perpetually Professed Confreres of Hyderabad Province," 9thFebruary 2006; available at: http://www.donboscohyderabad.org/site/english/bis_default_ms.php?yr=2006&newsid=767&pno=1&newsidlist=,912,908,846,845,817,801,800,799,767,763
16. Cf. Ken Blanchard & Phil Hodges, Lead like Jesus (Delhi: Pearson Education in South Asia, 2006), 7.
17. K. B. Kumar, "The 8th Annual Conference of the Catholic Psychologists of India, "1st October 2007, Mangalore.
18. Cf. Michael Ramsey, The Christian Priest Today, 111.
19. Cf. Jose Cheriampanatt, "Integral Priestly Spirituality in the Changing World," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 5 (2009): 357.
20. Cf. J. Parappully, "Spirituality of the Diocesan Priest," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 1 (2009): 20-21.
21. Cf. J. Parappully, Spirituality of the Diocesan Priest, 27.
22. Cf. F. Quinlivan, "Seeking an Apostolic Spirituality," Human Development," 11 (1990): 35; Jose Cheriampanatt, "Integral Priestly Spirituality in the Changing World," 357.
23. Cf. J. Ratzinger, "Priestly Ministry: A Search for Its Meaning," Emmanuel 76 (1970): 500.
24. Cf. Jacob Srampickal, "Challenges to Ministry in the Electronic Media Age," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 7 (2009): 541-542.
25. Cf. D.K. Simonton, "Creativity: Cognitive, Personal, Developmental and Social Aspects," American Psychologist 55 (2000): 153; Jose Parappully and Joe Mannath, "Religious and Priestly Formation and Emotional Health," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 4 (2009): 284.
26. Cf. Ken Blanchard and Phil Hodges, Lead like Jesus, 19-20.
BLANCHARD Ken and Phil HODGES
2006 Lead like Jesus. Delhi: Pearson Education in South Asia.
2006 "Conference to the Perpetually Professed Confreres of Hyderabad Province," 9th February, Hyderabad; available at: http://www.donboscohyderabad.org/site/english/bis_default_ms.php?yr=2006...
2009 "Integral Priestly Spirituality in the Changing World," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73:5, 346-360.
1996 The Fire in These Ashes, A Spirituality of Contemporary Religious Life. Kansas City: Sheed and Ward.
1993 "The Priest’s Culture," The Priest (December): 37-39.
1998 The Chalice and the Blade. New York: Harper SanFrancisco.
JOHN PAUL II
1980 Dives in Misericordia. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1980.
KUMAR K. B.
2007 "The 8th Annual Conference of the Catholic Psychologists of India," 1st October, Mangalore.
LUNDY J. David
2003 Servant Leadership for Slow Learners. Secunderabad, India: OM Books.
1995 "Who is a Priest?" Contemporary Religious Update -11, The New Leader, November 1-15, pp. 13-15.
2009 "Spirituality of the Diocesan Priest," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 1: 19-30.
PARAPPULLY Jose and Joe MANNATH
2009 "Religious and Priestly Formation and Emotional Health," Vidyajoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73, No. 4: 274-293.
1952 Ad Catholici Sacerdotii. London: Catholic Truth Society.
1990 "Seeking an Apostolic Spirituality," Human Development 11: 31-35.
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